Particle Course

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Particle Course

Case particle 4:に

Function 1: the location of existence

Example:

つくえうえほんがある。

There is a book on the desk.

 

Explanation:

“desk” is the location of “book”.

 

Function 2: the time when action occurs

 

Example:

わたし三時さんじかける。

I will go out at 3 o’clock.

 

Explanation:

“3 o’clock” is the time that “go out” occurs.

 

Function 3: the destination point of action

 

Example:

ほんつくえうえく ・椅子いすすわる・えき

Put the book on the desk/sit on a chair/arrive at the station.

 

Explanation:

“desk/chair/station” is the destination point of action(put/sit/arrive at).

 

Function 4: the result of change

Example:

子供こども大人おとなになる。

The children become grow-ups.

 

Explanation:

“grow-ups” is the result of change.

 

Function 5: the objective of action

Example:

映画えいがく ・ばんはんべに

Go to the movies/Go to eat dinner.

 

Explanation:

“movie/dinner” is the objective of the action(go).

 

Function 6: the object of action

Example:

わたしかれほんおしえる。

I teach him Japanese.

 

Explanation:

“He” is the object of the action “teach”.

 

Function 7: the object of comparison

Example:

わたしかれおとる。

I’m not as good as he is.

 

Explanation:

“He” is the object of comparison.

 

Function 8: the reason of action

Example:

かれ仕事しごと成功せいこう自信じしんけた。

He became confident because of the success of work.

 

Explanation:

“the success of work” is the reason he became confident.

 

Notes:
1.both と and に has the function of telling us the result of change,but に is often used in speaking and と is often used in writing.

2.both へ and に has the function of telling us the destination of action,but it sounds more natural to use へ.

3.both へ and に has the function of telling us the object of action,but へ emphasizes the process of action,while に emphasizes the result of action.

For example,
とうきょうきます。(The listener won’t know the destination, maybe it’s Tokyo, maybe not, only thing the listener knows is that Tokyo is one of the processes)
とうきょうきます。(The listener will know that Tokyo is the result, is the destination.)

4.に is the place something exists,or the place you arrive at,BUT,で is the place the action happens(you take some actions here),DO NOT confuse them.

4 thoughts on “Case particle 4:に

  1. I don’t understand what you mean by “へ emphasizes the process of action,while に emphasizes the result of action”. Can you please give an example of when it would be appropriate to use each?

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      For example,
      東京へ行きます。(The listener won’t know the destination, maybe it’s Tokyo, maybe not, only thing the listener knows is that Tokyo is one of the processes)
      東京に行きます。(The listener will know that Tokyo is the result, is the destination.)

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