Particle Course

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Marshall
JLPT Basic, JLPT Course
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Particle Course

Case particle 4:に

In this lesson, I will teach you how to use particle に.


Function 1: the place where something exists

If you want to express something/someone exists in somewhere, you should use に.

Topic(Thing) + + Place + + あります
Topic(Person) + + Place + + います

Examples:

わたし公園こうえんいます。
I’m in the park.

ほんつくえうえあります。
The book is on the desk.

ぺんポケットなかあります。
The pen is in the pocket.

かれ学校がっこういます。
He is in the school.

彼女かのじょどこいますか。
Where is she?

カギどこありますか。
Where is the key?

Function 2: the time marker

If you want to express the time when something happens, you can use something below.

Topic + + Time + + Verb

Examples:

わたし三時さんじかけます。
I will go out at 3 o’clock.

かれはちきました。
He got up at 8 o’clock.

ごと木曜もくようはじまります。
The work will start on Thursday.

彼女かのじょ金曜きんようもどります。
She will be back on Friday.

かれ三月さんがつそつぎょうします。
They will graduate in March.

Function 3: the receiver of things or information

If you want to express someone gives others something or some information, you can use the pattern below.

Receiver + + Noun + + Verb

Examples:

なかさんえいおしえます。
I will teach Mr.Tanaka English.

やまさんほんあげます。
I will give Mr.Yamada the book.

かれプレゼントおくりました。
I gave him the present.

彼女かのじょ写真しゃしんおくりました。
I sent her the photos.

Function 4: point of destination while moving something

If you want to express that you move something to somewhere, you can use something below.

Place + + Things + + Verb

Examples:

かべ写真しゃしんりました。
I sticked a photo on the wall.

ゴミばこごみてました。
I threw the garbage in the trash.

つくえほんきます。
I put the book on the desk.

Function 5: object of action

If you want to express “do something with somebody” or “do something to somebody”, you can use something below.

Person + + Verb

Examples:

いぬやまさんほえました。
The dog barked at Mr. Yamada.

先生せんせい相談そうだんします。
I will talk with the teacher.

かれ真相しんそうはなします。
I will tell him the truth.

Function 6: place of arrival

If you want to express the place of arrival, you can use something like below.

Topic + + Place + + Verb

Examples:

わたしびょういんきました。
I went to the hospital.

かれ椅子いすすわりました。
He sat on the cheer.

彼女かのじょえききました。
She arrived at the station.

かれえいかんきます。
They will go to the theater.

わたしたち郵便ゆうびんきょく行きます。
We will go to the post office.

Function 7: the result of change

If you want to express the result of change, you can use something like below.

Noun + + なります

Examples:

子供こども大人おとななりました。
The children became grow-ups.

こおりみずなりました。
The ice became the water.

かれ俳優はいゆうなりました。
He became an actor.

わたし先生せんせいなりたいです。
I want to be a teacher.

わたしたちサラリーマンなりました。
We became office workers.

Function 8: the agent in causative form and passive form

If you want to use Causative Form of Verb or Passive Form of Verb, you can use に to mark the agent.

Agent + + Noun + + Causative Form of Verb

Agent + + Passive Form of Verb

Examples:

やまさんほんませます。
I will let Yamada read the book.

なかさんほんせます。
I will show the book to Tanaka.

先生せんせいほめられました。
I was praised by the teacher.

かあさんつかりました。
I was found by mom.

Function 9: comparison criterion

If you want to compare something, you can use something like below.

Topic + + Comparison Criterion + + Verb

Examples:

やまさんとおさんています。
Yamada looks like his father.

わたしかれおとります。
I’m not as good as he is.

Function 10: the goal of action

If you want to express you goal of doing something, you can use something like below.

Goal + + Verb

Examples:

わたしたちえいきました。
We went to the movies.

ばんはんく.
I will go to eat dinner.

かれものきました。
He went to shopping.

シャツきます。
I’m going to buy a shirt.

えんぴつのに使つかいます。
Pencils are used to write letters.

Function 11: the reason of action

If you want to express the reason of action, you can use something like below.

Reason + + Action

Examples:

かれ仕事しごと成功せいこう自信じしんけた。
He became confident because of his successful career.

ひとおおびっくりしました。
I was surprised at the large number of people.

Notes:

①Both と and に has the function of telling us the result of change,but に is often used in spoken Japanese and と is often used in written Japanese.

②Both へ and に has the function of telling us the destination of action,but it sounds more natural to use へ.

③Both へ and に has the function of telling us the object of action,but へ emphasizes the process of action,while に emphasizes the result of action.
For example,
とうきょうきます。(The listener won’t know the destination, maybe it’s Tokyo, maybe not, only thing the listener knows is that Tokyo is one of the processes)
とうきょうきます。(The listener will know that Tokyo is the result, is the destination.)

④に is the place something exists,or the place you arrive at,BUT,で is the place where the action happens(you take some actions here),DO NOT confuse them.(に is a point but で is a scope.)
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