Particle Course

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Marshall
JLPT Basic, JLPT Course
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Particle Course

Case particle 2:の

In this lesson, I will teach you how to use the particle の.


Function 1: express the relationship

If you want to express the relationship between something/somebody, you can use something like below.

Noun + の + Noun

Examples:

これわたしほんです。
This is my book.

かれわたしちちです。
He is my father.

この女性じょせいわたしあねです。
This woman is my elder sister.

かれパソコンどこですか。
Where is his PC?

わたしたち学校がっこうおなじです。
We are in the same school.

Function 2: express the appositive

If you want to use appositive to describe someone in detail, you can use something like below.
Noun A + の + Noun B

Examples:

かれ友達ともだち田中たなかです。
He is my friend Tanaka.

わたしりゅう学生がくせいトムです。
I’m the international student Tom.

彼女かのじょえい先生せんせいみきです。
She is the English teacher Miki.

かれCEOジャックです。
He is the CEO,Jack.

彼女かのじょかんにん中村なかむらさんです。
She is the manager Nakamura.

Function 3: the attributive clause

If you want to describe something using the attributive clause,just change が to の ,for example, しんある→しんある人.

 Examples:

水泳すいえいできるひと
The man who can swim.

わたしそつぎょうしたがっこう
The school that I graduated from.

しんあるひと
Person who has confidence.

やりがいあるごと
The job that worth to do.

意味いみあること
Meaningful things.

Function 4: Change Verb to Noun

If you want to change a Verb to Noun, you can add の in the end of Dictionary Form of the Verb.

If you have learned Verb Course on this website before, you will know that you can add こと in the end of Dictionary Form of a verb to change it to a Noun.

The Difference between の and こと when it comes to change the verb to noun.
①When yo want to describe the emotion or evaluation,you can use both, they are the same.

外国がいこくべんきょうするのはたのしいです。

外国がいこくべんきょうすることたのしいです。
It’s fun to learn foreign languages.

学生がくせいゆうしゅうのがなか先生せんせいまんです。

学生がくせいゆうしゅうなことなか先生せんせいまんです。
Mr.Tanaka is very proud that his students are excellent.

②When you want to describe specific actions, の is more often used.
なかさんはしっているのをました。
I saw that Mr.Tanaka was running.

やまさんほんんでいるのがこえます。
I can hear that Mr.Yamada is reading a book.

むらさんのをちます。
I’m waiting for Kimura coming.

③In the sentence like XX + + Noun + です, の is more often used.

ケーキべたのはやまさんです。
It’s Yamada that ate the cake.

きのうったのはきょうです。
It’s Kyoto that I went to yesterday.

④If you want to recommend something or express your thought, こと is more often used.

大学だいがく進学しんがくすることすすめます。
I recommend going to the university.

わたしアメリカりゅうがくすることかんがえています。
I’m thinking of studying in America.

Function 5: Replace something that both the listener and speaker know

Usually, if you want to replace something that both the listener and speaker know, you can use もの, but you can also use の, they are the same.

Examples:

おおきいのをひとつください。 
Please give me a bigger one.

おおきいものひとつください。 
Please give me a bigger one.

かあさんってきたのをべました。
I ate what my mom bought.

かあさんってきたものべました。
I ate what my mom bought.

Function 6: the quantity of something

If you want to express the quantity of something, you can use something like below.

Quantity + の + Noun

Examples:

JapaneseEnglish
椅子いすThree chairs
二人ふたり友達ともだちTwo friends
三冊さんさつほんThree books
ぴきねこTwo cats
3台さんだいスマホThree phones
3+
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