Particle Course

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Marshall
JLPT Basic, JLPT Course
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Particle Course

Case particle 1:が

In this lesson, I will teach you how to use the case particle が.


Function 1: subject marker

If you want to tell people 〇〇 is the subject, Just add が after 〇〇.

Note:

は is also a particle(adverbial particle).
It’s called topic marker.
It means that the noun before it is the topic of this sentence.

When は is a particle, it’s read as “wa”.
は: emphasizes the noun after it.
が: emphasizes the noun before it.

For example, わたしトムです。 I’m Tom.
In this sentence, は emphasizes “Tom”. So you can drop the “私は” too. If you say “トムです”, it also means “I’m Tom.”, It’s just less formal.

わたしトムです。I’m Tom.
In this sentence, が emphasizes “私”. This sentence is often used to answer a question: “Who is Tom?”
So you will answer him: I’m Tom. (It’s not everyone else, It’s me!)
So it will be weird to drop the 私が.

Usually, は is way more often used.
But if you do want to emphasize the subject, feel free to use が, it’s correct too!

Examples:

A: 田中どなたですか。
B: かれ田中たなかです。
A: Who is Tanaka?
B: He is Tanaka.

わたし学生がくせいです。
I’m a student.

わたしほんべんきょうしました。
I learned Japanese.

彼女かのじょかわいいです。
She is cute.

かれわたし友達ともだちです。
They are my friends.

Function 2: express what you want to do

If you want to express that you want to do something, Just use something below.

わたし + Object + + Wish Form of the Verb.

Note:

Sometimes You will find some sentences like below.

わたしみずみたいです。
I want to drink water.

It’s not wrong in modern Japanese. を is the particle to mark the object of verb. (You will learn it later)

Although みたい can be used as an i-adj, like みたいもの, it’s wish form of む too. So there are more and more people use を.
みずみ)たい
みずみたい)

You can even drop the particle in conversation. (But you can’t do that in exam! )

みず みたい

Conclusion:
In Exam and Article: use XX + が + ..たい
In Conversation: が、を or just drop the particle.

Examples:

わたし結果けっかりたいです。
I want to know the result.

わたしえいべんきょうしたいです。
I want to learn English.

わたしアニメたいです。
I want to watch anime.

ほんみたいです。
I want to read books.

にくべたいです。
I want to eat meat.

Function 3: express likes and dislikes

If you want to express what you like and what you don’t like, you can use something like below.

わたし + Noun + + (だいき + です。

わたし + Noun + + (だいきらい + です。

Examples:

わたしあまいものきです。
I like sweet food.

わたし辛いものだいきらいです。
I hate spicy food.

わたしアニメだいきです。
I like anime so much.

宿しゅくだいきらいです。
I don’t like homework.

あなたこときです。
I like you.

Note:

If you want to express the hope of others, you can click the link below to learn it!

https://marshallyin.com/courses/n4-grammar-course/lessons/n4-grammar-rule-2/

Function 4: express the level of skill

If you want to express the level of skill, you can use something like below.

Topic + + Noun + じょうです。
Topic + + Noun + 下手へたです。

Examples:

わたしほん下手へたです。
I’m not good at Japanese.

かれギターじょうです。
He is good at guitar.

彼女かのじょうまいです。
She is good at painting.

かれ数学すうがくすごくじょうです。
He is very good at math.

わたしえいはなのがじょうです。
I’m good at speaking English.

Function 5: express the ability

If you want to express the ability, you can use something like below.

Topic + + Noun + Potential Form of Verb.

Examples:

わたし漢字かんじめます。
I can read kanji.

わたしえいはなせません。
I can’t speak English.

かれうたうたえます。
He can sing songs.

彼女かのじょダンスできます。
She can dance.

わたしくるま運転うんてんできません。
I can’t drive.
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