Particle Course

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JLPT Basic, JLPT Course
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Particle Course

Case particle 1:が

Function 1: the noun before が is the subject

Example:

かれ田中たなかです。

He is Tanaka.

 

Explanation:

“He” is the subject

 

Function 2: express the hope

Example:

わたし結果けっかりたい。

I want to know the result.

 

Explanation:

“The result” is something you want to know,It is your hope.

 

Function 3: express likes and dislikes

Example:

わたしあまいものがきだ。

I like sweet food.

 

Explanation:

“sweet food” is something you like.

 

Function 4: express the level of skill

Example:

彼女かのじょがうまい。

She is good at painting.

 

Explanation:

“be good at” is the level of skill.

 

Function 5: express the difficulty

Example:

このペンが使つかいにくい。

This pen is hard to use.

 

Explanation:

“hard to use” is the difficulty.

【Polite Form of verb(delete the ます in the end)+にくい 】 means “hard to”. It’s a grammar rule. For example, べにくい=hard to eat, やりにくい=hard to do.

 

Function 6: express the ability

Example:

わたし漢字かんじめる。

I can read kanji.

 

Explanation:

“can read” is the ability.

 

Note:

は is also a particle(adverbial particle). When は is a particle, it reads as “wa”,

Remember that は emphasizes the noun after it. But が emphasizes the noun before it.

 

In addition to this function, は has another function: contrast.

For example:

このビルはたかいですが、それにくらべて、あのビルはたかくないです。

This building is tall, compared to that, that building is not tall.

Example:

わたしほんじんです。

I’m Japanese.(は emphasizes the noun after it,which is “Japanese”.)

 

わたしほんじんです。

I’m Japanese.(が emphasizes the noun before it,which is “I”.)

 

 

9 thoughts on “Case particle 1:が

  1. So if someone asked “Which of you is Japanese?” it would be more appropriate to use 私が日本人です。but if the question was “What is your nationality?”, it would be better to say 私は日本人です。Is that right?

    1. Look at Noun Form in Verb Course. I think that sentence can be understood as “It’s hard using this pen” where “tsukai” here is “using”. Not really sure about that, could be something else.

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