Verb Course

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Marshall
JLPT Basic, JLPT Course
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  • 96 week duration

Verb Course

How to classify Japanese Verbs?

Japanese has four verb types:
type-one verb(aka godan verb),
type-two verb(aka ichidan verb),
type-three verb(aka suru-verb),
irregular verb.

You may ask: how do I find out a verb’s type? No worries, I will teach you in this lesson.

Question 1:What is type-one verb?

type-one verb has two features:

①If the verb is something like below, then it is a type-one verb.

PatternExamples
○うう→ to meet,う→to buy
○くく→ to write,く→to go
○ぐぐ→to smell,およぐ→to swim
○すす→to push,ころす→to kill
○つつ→to hit,つ→to wait
○ぬぬ→to die
○ぶぶ→to call,ぶ→to fly
○むむ→to drink,む→to read
PatternNoteExamples
○るthe hiragana next to る is in the a-column(あ、か、さ、…わ)やる→to do
る→to leave
○るthe hiragana next to る is in the o-column(お、こ、そ…).る→to fold
いのる→to pray

Question 2:What is the type-two verb?

If the verb is something like below,Then,this verb is a type-two verb.

PatternNoteExamples
○るthe hiragana next to る is in the i-column(い、き、し…).る→to see
りる→to get off
○るthe hiragana next to る is in the e-column(え、け、せ…).べる→eat
える→get cold

Question 3:What is the type-three verb?

If the verb is something like below,Then this verb is a type-three verb.

PatternExamples
Two or more Kanji + するべんきょうする→to learn
成功せいこうする→be successful
one kanji + するさっする→sympathize
せっする→to touch

Question 4:What is irregular verb

There are two irregular verbs in Japanese,る and する.
Their rules are irregular, but they are easy to remember.


Exceptions:

The table below are 26 type-one verbs that look like type-two verb,Just remember them directly!

JapaneseEnglish
帰(かえ)るto return
切(き)るto cut
減(へ)るto decrease
要(い)るneed
知(し)るto know
走(はし)るto run
入(はい)るto come in
返(かえ)るto return
滑(すべ)るto slip
参(まい)るto come、to go
混(ま)じるto mix
握(にぎ)るto squeeze
煎(い)るto roast
練(ね)るto knead
散(ち)るto scatter
照(て)るto shine
蹴(け)るto kick
焦(あせ)るto be in a hurry
限(かぎ)るto limit
湿(しめ)るto damp
茂(しげ)るto grow thick
遮(さえぎ)るto obstruct
罵(ののし)るto abuse
嘲(あざけ)るto ridicule
漲(みなぎ)るto be full of water
覆(くつがえ)るto overturn

In the next section, you will learn to convert Japanese verbs to different forms. It seems that there are a lot of different forms. But only four forms are really important: the polite, past tense, negative, and Te forms. If you don’t want to learn all forms at once, be sure to master these four first, and feel free to come back and refer to other forms when you met them.
Note: You can find a verb conjugation test in the nav menu [Test].

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