Verb Course

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Marshall
JLPT Basic, JLPT Course
Free
  • 15 lessons
  • 0 quizzes
  • 96 week duration

Verb Course

How to classify Japanese Verbs?

In this lesson, I will teach you how to classify Japanese Verbs.


Japanese has 4 verb types:
①Type-1 Verb(aka godan verb)
②Type-2 Verb(aka ichidan verb)
③Type-3 Verb(aka suru-verb)
④Irregular Verb.

You may ask: how do I find out a verb’s type?
No worries, I will teach you in this lesson.

Question 1: What is Type-1 Verb?

Type-1 Verbs are verbs like below.

Note:
◯ stands for kanji, hiragana or a mixture of hiragana and kanji.

PatternExamples
○うう→ to meet,う→to buy
○くく→ to write,く→to go
○ぐぐ→to smell,およぐ→to swim
○すす→to push,ころす→to kill
○つつ→to hit,つ→to wait
○ぬぬ→to die
○ぶぶ→to call,ぶ→to fly
○むむ→to drink,む→to read
PatternNoteExamples
○るthe hiragana next to る is in the a-column(あ、か、さ、…わ)やる→to do
る→to leave
○るthe hiragana next to る is in the o-column(お、こ、そ…).る→to fold
いのる→to pray

Question 2: What is the Type-2 Verb?

Type-2 Verbs are verbs like below.

PatternNoteExamples
○るthe hiragana next to る is in the i-column(い、き、し…).る→to see
りる→to get off
○るthe hiragana next to る is in the e-column(え、け、せ…).べる→eat
える→get cold

Question 3:What is the Type-3 Verb?

Type-3 Verbs are verbs like below.

PatternExamples
Two or more Kanji + するべんきょうする→to learn
成功せいこうする→be successful
one kanji + するさっする→sympathize
せっする→to touch

Question 4:What is Irregular Verb?

There are only two Irregular Verbs in Japanese,る and する.
Their rules are irregular, but they are easy to remember.


Exceptions:

The table below are 26 Type-1 Verbs that look like Type-2 Verb.

Tip: You don’t need to remember them all at once, it’s not effective.
Just remember them when you met them.
Some of them are often used so it won’t be hard for you to remember.
JapaneseReadingEnglish
帰るかえるto go home
切るきるto cut
減るへるto decrease
要るいるneed
知るしるto know
走るはしるto run
入るはいるto come in
返るかえるto return
滑るすべるto slip
参るまいるto come、to go
混じるまじるto mix
握るにぎるto squeeze
煎るいるto roast
練るねるto knead
散るちるto scatter
照るてるto shine
蹴るけるto kick
焦るあせるto be in a hurry
限るかぎるto limit
湿るしめるto damp
茂るしげるto grow thick
遮るさえぎるto obstruct
罵るののしるto abuse
嘲るあざけるto ridicule
漲るみなぎるto be full of water
覆るくつがえるto overturn

Note:

In the next section, you will learn how to convert Japanese verbs to different forms.
It seems that there are a lot of different forms, but only four forms are very important:
①Polite Form
②Past Tense Form
③Negative Form
④Te Form

If you don’t want to learn all forms at once, be sure to master these four first, and feel free to come back and learn other forms when you have time.

Note: You can find some verb conjugation quizzes in the nav menu [Quiz].
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