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What's the difference between 断定 and 結論?

While I've only seen 結論 used in expressions like "Which conclusion do you arrive at?", I've seen both 断定 and 結論 used when saying "Don't draw a hasty conclusion".

What are the differences between the two, and when is one more appropriate than the other?

Remember that 断つ means "to cut [off]", which carries the connotation of "put an end to", i.e. discussions or other progressing concepts.

A related word is 断言 which means, more or less, "the final word", or "an authoritative answer". Often used in a negative context when searching for a tactful dodge: 「断言できないね」.

So 断定 is then "to set with finality", while 結論 can be "to tie together theory/discussion".

In general it's a good rule of thumb at least with 漢語 to ask first what the characters are saying, and then try to connect that to the meaning.