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Transitive Verb & Intransitive Verb
What are 自動詞 and 他動詞？
|自動詞 is just like intransitive verb in English.|
A verb that does not require a direct object is an “Intransitive verb”.
The action or state identified by an intransitive verb relates only to the subject of a sentence.
自動詞 emphasizes the state and doesn’t need a direct object. Besides, when we use 自動詞， the listener will only know something happened, but he/she won’t know what caused this happen.
|他動詞 is just like transitive verb in English.|
A verb that requires a direct object is a “Transitive verb”.
It usually expresses an action in which the activity is directed towards someone or something, as indicated by a direct object. Transitive verbs take subjects, and direct objects (receiver of the action marked by the particle を).
他動詞 emphasizes the action and needs a direct object. Besides, When we use 他動詞， the listener will not only know something happened, but he/she will know what caused this happen. (If the subject is eliminated, then the subject will be the speaker.)
How can I know a verb is a 自動詞 or 他動詞?
|自動詞 only. (there isn’t another verb with the same kanji to act like a 他動詞)||いる(there is..)|
寝る(to go to sleep)
|他動詞 only.(there isn’t another verb with the same kanji to act like a 自動詞)||買う（to buy）|
聞く（to ask, to listen）
|自他動詞（can be used as both自動詞 and 他動詞）||吹く（to blow） |
|自他動詞ペア（a pair that has the same kanji can be used as 自動詞 and 他動詞）||（1）all verbs that has す in the end is 他動詞. and the verb with the same kanji but has る in the end is 自動詞.|
（2）most of the type-two verbs (aka ichidan verb) are 他動詞. and the type-one (aka godan verb) verbs with the same kanji are 自動詞.
（3）most of the type-two verbs that has れる in the end are 自動詞(exception is 入れる， which is a 他動詞). and the type-one verbs with the same kanji are 他動詞.
（4）verbs(has む、める in the end) that the kanji can be used as an adjective are often 他動詞.
How can I make sentences using 自動詞 and 他動詞？
Subject + は/が ＋ Verb.
The bell rang.
She is crying.
The game started.
Subject + は/が ＋ Object + を + Verb.
I’m listening to music.
He watched the movie.
She is reading the book.
I opened the door.