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Transitive Verb & Intransitive Verb
What are 自動詞 and 他動詞？
|自動詞 is just like intransitive verb in English.|
A verb that does not require a direct object is an “Intransitive verb”.
The action or state identified by an intransitive verb relates only to the subject of a sentence.
自動詞 emphasizes the state and doesn’t need a direct object. Besides, when we use 自動詞， the listener will only know something happened, but he/she won’t know what caused this happen.
|他動詞 is just like transitive verb in English.|
A verb that requires a direct object is a “Transitive verb”.
It usually expresses an action in which the activity is directed towards someone or something, as indicated by a direct object. Transitive verbs take subjects, and direct objects (receiver of the action marked by the particle を).
他動詞 emphasizes the action and needs a direct object. Besides, When we use 他動詞， the listener will not only know something happened, but he/she will know what caused this happen. (If the subject is eliminated, then the subject will be the speaker.)
|Please look at the example below.|
The fire has been put out.
I have put out the fire.
In the first example, we don’t know who put out the fire, maybe it’s been put out by the speaker, maybe it’s because of the wind.
But in the second example, we know that it’s the speaker who put out the fire.
How can I know a verb is a 自動詞 or 他動詞?
|自動詞 only. (there isn’t another verb with the same kanji to act like a 他動詞)||いる(there is..)|
寝る(to go to sleep)
|他動詞 only.(there isn’t another verb with the same kanji to act like a 自動詞)||買う（to buy）|
聞く（to ask, to listen）
|自他動詞（can be used as both自動詞 and 他動詞）||吹く（to blow） |
|自他動詞ペア（a pair that has the same kanji can be used as 自動詞 and 他動詞）||（1）all verbs that has す in the end is 他動詞. and the verb with the same kanji but has る in the end is 自動詞.|
（2）most of the type-two verbs (aka ichidan verb) are 他動詞. and the type-one (aka godan verb) verbs with the same kanji are 自動詞.
（3）most of the type-two verbs that has れる in the end are 自動詞(exception is 入れる， which is a 他動詞). and the type-one verbs with the same kanji are 他動詞.
（4）verbs(has む、める in the end) that the kanji can be used as an adjective are often 他動詞.
How can I make sentences using 自動詞 and 他動詞？
Subject + は/が ＋ Verb.
The bell rang.
She is crying.
The game started.
Subject + は/が ＋ Object + を + Verb.
I’m listening to music.
He watched the movie.
She is reading the book.
I opened the door.